CSU 11/2008: GATES FOUNDATION ON MALARIA ERADICATION
|Friday, 14th of March 2008|
CSU 11/2008: GATES FOUNDATION ON MALARIA ERADICATION
The phrase 'malaria eradication' came into use in 1955, when WHO's
governing body called for a time limited global effort to stop transmission
in all countries. That effort failed, and in 1969 the same governing body
passed a resolution saying that primary health care was indispensable to
Since the launch of the Roll Back Malaria initiative, the scientific
community has proposed multiple interventions against malaria: IPTi, IPTp,
long life bednets, and experimental malaria vaccines, as well as indoor
residual spraying. So the following note from the Bill and Melinda Gates
Foundation will come as no surprise.
Different interventions are at different stages. Residual spraying
started in Sardinia in the 1940s. Experimental malaria vaccines are not yet
prequalified by WHO nor available for general use. IPTi has not yet
received approval by the World Health Organization. Once IPTi is approved,
one should monitor the droput rates for DPT, which, on a small scale in
Mali, fell to 7 percent, against 26 percent without IPTi (EPI presentation,
Peter Salama, Global Immunization Meeting, Geneva, 5 February 2008). Here,
as elsewhere, multiple interventions appear to be synergistic, not
Is it possible accurately to model the impact of multiple
interventions on vector borne diseases, where vector density and vector
efficiency are so variable? If not, we shall simply have to monitor the
effect of multiple interventions in the field to see whether they reduce
transmission, or interrupt it.
October 17, 2007
Bill and Melinda Gates Call for New Global Commitment to Chart a Course
for Malaria Eradication
New resources and scientific progress help pave the way toward malaria
U.S. presidential candidates urged to sustain and expand President's
SEATTLE -- Bill and Melinda Gates today called on global leaders to
embrace "an audacious goal—to reach a day when no human being has
malaria, and no mosquito on earth is carrying it." They delivered the
call to action at a forum of 300 leading malaria scientists and
policymakers from around the world.
"Advances in science and medicine, promising research, and the rising
concern of people around the world represent an historic opportunity not
just to treat malaria or to control it—but to chart a long-term course
to eradicate it," said Melinda Gates.
Every year, malaria kills more than one million people, most of them
children. A malaria eradication campaign in the 1950s and 1960s
collapsed because of declining donor funding and growing resistance to
drugs and pesticides. Malaria programs since then have focused on
reducing, not ending, the burden of malaria.
"We have a real chance to build the partnerships, generate the political
will, and develop the scientific breakthroughs we need to end this
disease," said Bill Gates. "We will not stop working until malaria is
New Malaria Partnerships, Resources Achieving Large-Scale Success
Bill Gates noted that "a rush of new actors"—such as the Global Fund to
Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria; the World Bank's Malaria Booster
Program; and the U.S. President's Malaria Initiative—are bringing new
energy and resources to the global effort to control malaria. Together,
these initiatives have committed $3.6 billion to malaria control, and
will reach more than 70 countries.
Gates also commended African countries that have undertaken aggressive,
comprehensive malaria control programs. In particular, he praised
Zambia's malaria program as an "inspiring example of a
A new UNICEF report released at the forum documents the impressive
progress of recent malaria control efforts. For example, the report
· The annual supply of insecticide-treated bednets to prevent malaria
has more than doubled in recent years, from 30 million nets in 2004 to
63 million nets in 2006.
· Global procurement of artemisinin combination therapies, the most
effective treatment for malaria, grew from 3 million doses in 2003 to
100 million in 2006.
To help build on this progress, Mr. and Mrs. Gates called on U.S.
presidential candidates to commit to supporting the President's Malaria
Initiative, a $1.2 billion effort launched by President Bush in 2005.
Mr. Gates said, "If you win this office, you will inherit a record
commitment to fighting malaria. The world needs you to sustain it and
enhance it. Malaria will never be eradicated without the full support of
the President of the United States."
Research Progress on New Vaccines, Drugs, and Insecticides
Mr. Gates cited the "extraordinary breadth of research underway in
medicines, vaccines, and other control tools" as another reason for new
optimism in the malaria fight. Examples of recent scientific progress by
Gates Foundation grantees include the following:
· Vaccines: New study results from the PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative,
published today by The Lancet, show that the experimental malaria
vaccine RTS,S is safe and may significantly reduce risk of malaria
infection in infants. In the study of 200 infants, the vaccine reduced
new infections by 65% over three-and-a-half months. A large-scale Phase
III trial of the vaccine will begin next year in 10 African trial sites.
· Medicines: The Medicines for Malaria Venture, which is researching
treatments to overcome resistance to existing drugs, has developed the
largest malaria drug portfolio in history, and expects regulatory
approval next year for an improved treatment for children.
· Mosquito control: The Innovative Vector Control Consortium is
developing new and improved insecticides to control the mosquitoes that
New vaccines, medicines, and insecticides will help "break the cycle of
transmission and eradicate the disease," said Mrs. Gates. "Both private
industry and public research institutions must continue to invest in new
tools in order to make malaria eradication possible."
Mr. and Mrs. Gates delivered the remarks at a meeting comprised of
malaria researchers, global health leaders, policy experts, and
government officials from around the world, taking place October 16-18
at the Sheraton Hotel in Seattle.
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
Guided by the belief that every life has equal value, the Bill & Melinda
Gates Foundation works to help all people lead healthy, productive
lives. In developing countries, it focuses on improving people’s health
and giving them the chance to lift themselves out of hunger and extreme
poverty. In the United States, it seeks to ensure that all
people—especially those with the fewest resources—have access to the
opportunities they need to succeed in school and life. Based in Seattle,
the foundation is led by CEO Patty Stonesifer and co-chair William H.
Gates Sr., under the direction of Bill and Melinda Gates and Warren